Articulation Screener - How to Determine What Sounds Your Child Needs Help With 


Have you ever wondered if your child is saying all the sounds correctly they should be saying for their age, or thought about which sounds your child says incorrectly that makes them difficult to understand? An Articulation Screener can help you answer these questions. Articulation Screeners are used by speech language pathologists to quickly determine which sounds children can or cannot say. They are also used to determine if the speech errors the child says are developmentally appropriate or if they are delayed. Articulation Screeners are not standardized and so they are only used as a reference for therapists, they are not used to determine eligibility for services.

Because it’s already time for “Back to School” (can you believe it?!) I would like to share my Articulation Screener with all of you so that you can have a free tool to use in helping you determine what sounds your kids say in error and whether those sounds are developmentally appropriate or delayed. I intentionally designed this screener to be simple and easy to use for both parents and SLPs. With this screener you will be able to test the consonant sounds and consonant blends in the English language. This screener does not test the vowels or sort errors by phonological processes.

How to Use the Articulation Screener:

Before you begin, look over the Articulation Screener. There are 5 pages all together. Page 1 is the information and instructions page. Pages 2-3 include all the different sounds that will be tested. Pages 4-5 are the images you’ll use. You can download the screener here or by clicking the red download button below.

On pages 2-3 you’ll notice that each sound has its own box. In the header of each of the sound boxes you will find the age at which most children have mastered that sound. You will also find a target word with that sound in it in the initial position (beginning of the word), a target word with that sound in the medial position (middle of the word) and a target word with that sound in the final position (end of the word). Each of these target words are important because they help us determine if the target sound is said accurately in all word positions.

Each word has a scoring box to the left of the word. The red scoring box indicates that we are testing the sound in the initial position of the word. The blue scoring box indicates we are testing the sound in the medial position of the word. The green scoring box indicates we are testing the sound in the final position of the word. The sound we are testing will also appear in the same color text as the scoring box next to it, so if we’re scoring “piano” for initial p then we’ll have a red box to left of the word piano and the “p” in piano will be red as well.

All you need now is a copy of the screener, a pencil, your child and maybe a few reinforcements (mini marshmallows, chocolate chips, raisins or whatever will work to keep your kids interested). Place the first page of images in front of the child you are testing then refer to the first sound box on the screener (the P Sound). Point to the piano on the images page and ask, “What is that?” Since the word piano has a red scoring box next to it we know that we are only scoring the initial /p/ sound (also marked with red text) in the word piano. If the child says it correctly we mark the box with a check mark. If the child says it incorrectly we place an X in the box. When the sound is said incorrectly you may want to write how the word was said incorrectly. For example if instead of saying “piano” the child said “ano,” we would write “ano” on the line next to the word. By doing this we can get more information about the kind of errors the child is making. In this example the child left the /p/ sound off completely.

Next point to the word apple. Ask the child, “What is that?” If the child doesn’t know the word say, “I call it an apple, what do I call it?” Following up the prompt with the question, “What do I call it?” insures the child doesn’t say the word in direct imitation of you. Often times a child can say a word more clearly in direct imitation than they can say it in spontaneous speech. That is why to accurately understand which sounds they can or cannot say we should avoid direct imitation of the target words. After the child says “apple” score the child’s production of the /p/ sound in the middle of the word (marked in blue) in the blue scoring box to the left of the word. Now point to “mop” and ask, “What is that?” Score the child’s production of the final /p/ sound (marked in green) in the green scoring box to the left of the word “mop”.

You’ll notice that sometimes more than one letter in a word is printed in red, blue or green such as “mop”. This indicates that the same word will be used to test different sounds that appear later in the screener. In the example of “mop” the red m indicates that we will be testing the /m/ sound in the initial position of this word in the M Sound box as well as testing the final /p/ sound in the P Sound box. This is the case whenever the same word is used to test different sounds in the screener. To save time you may score these words that appear multiple times, at the same time, or just have the child repeat the word again when you get to that word later in the screener. It’s up to you.

After you have tested all the words in the screener add up the total number of X’s (errors) you have in the boxes and put it on the line indicated for the total number of errors in the Age Approximation Box on the 3rd page of the screener.  By looking at where that number fits in the table (located below the total number of errors) you can get an idea of whether the number of speech errors present in the child’s speech are developmentally appropriate or if they indicate a delay.

You may also look back through the screener and see which sounds the child you have tested needs work on. You may see that there are certain sounds the child cannot say at all, or you may find that the child is not saying multiple sounds in a certain sound position. You can also quickly look at which sounds the child you have tested is not saying correctly that he/she should be saying correctly based on their age.

You can download the Articulation Screener here or you can go to the worksheets page and download it by clicking on the heading “Misc Articulation Forms > Articulation Screener”.

Tips for giving the Articulation Screener:

  1. Record the child’s responses for a quick review and as a reference for progress.
  2. Avoid giving verbal models of the word that is being tested, Say, “What else do you call it?” or “I call it a (name of word), what do I call it?”
  3. When scoring correct or incorrect responses score only the targeted sound in the targeted sound position (as indicated by the colored box next to the word).
  4. Have reinforcements handy to keep the child interested and focused on completing the screener.

After you have determined which sound/s the child you are working with needs help on you may be interested in plugging them into my Articulation Goal Tracker to help you outline where to start as well as track progress. You may also be interested in reading, “The Process of Articulation Therapy” for an outline of how to get started once you have determined your goals. If you need tips on how to teach specific sounds you can find them here on Mommy Speech Therapy among my posts on how to teach specific sounds. You can also find worksheets for practicing sounds on my worksheets page or you can download Articulation Station on your iPad for lots of fun, interactive activities for teaching articulation in all 22 sound programs.

If you feel you need to contact a speech language pathologist for further testing you can search ASHA’s (American Speech Language Hearing Association) website under “Find a Professional.” I hope this screener will help answer your questions about whether or not your son or daughter has a speech delay, what sounds they may need help with and whether or not it is time to seek professional guidance. If you have any questions please leave them in the comments. As always, I wish you all the best of luck and lots of success!



Heidi - Mommy Speech Therapy Heidi Hanks, M.S.CCC-SLP has been a practicing Speech-Language Pathologist since 2000. She graduated from Utah State University where she completed both her Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees. She began her career in early intervention and eventually started her own private practice where she has worked primarily with pre-K through school age kids. She is the founder of Little Bee Speech, and is currently developing apps for speech and language. Heidi lives in Utah with her husband and 4 children.


52 Responses to “Articulation Screener - How to Determine What Sounds Your Child Needs Help With ”

  1. Rebecca D says:

    This will be very helpful. Thank you so much for sharing it!

  2. Kate says:

    Hi Heidi,

    As an Australian student currently enrolled in a Master of Speech and Language Pathology program, your website is just fantastic! Your worksheets are particularly inspirational for someone just beginning their SLP career! Do you use a particular program to create them? I’d love to make some of my own using a similar style of graphics to those you use- they’re so easy to understand and children love them!

    Many thanks,
    Kate

  3. Lindsey says:

    This is an awesome artic screener! Thank you so much for sharing your hard work! :)

  4. Rochelle says:

    I’ve found you blog very interesting and am working through the articulation screening tool with my 3 year old son. We adopted him from China 9 months ago, and he is doing really well learning English. His articulation is improving, but I’m curious where you would expect him to be in his score on the screening test. My guess is he’ll be at the 2 year old level. When would you expect him to be on par with kids his age?
    Thanks for you help,
    Rochelle

    • Heidi says:

      Hi Rochelle,

      Without interacting with your son personally I really couldn’t say how I would expect him to perform on the screener. However, I can say confidently that I would expect a delay given the brief history you have shared with me. How long it will take him to catch up to the kids his age is also difficult to predict without knowing him and knowing the treatment plan you have set up for him.

      It does sound like you are on the right track and making steady improvement. Just keep doing what you are doing and I am sure before long you will look back and be amazed at how far he has come.

      All the best!
      Heidi

      • Rochelle says:

        Thanks Heidi
        I already have the screener bookmarked and look forward to going over it with my son in a few months and seeing how he’s progressing.
        Rochelle

  5. Linda says:

    I’m so glad I found your site! We’ve just gone through the screener and confirmed what I’ve been noticing – my 4 year old daughter has trouble with her initial R blends, usually substituting a cr sound for pr, tr (and tw). After looking at your worksheets I think I can create something similar on those sounds (although not as pretty!) to help her.
    Thank you!
    Linda

    • Heidi says:

      Hi Linda,

      I’m glad this screener helped you identify the sounds your daughter is saying in error. I am hoping to have some worksheets up soon for the r blends. In the meantime I am confident yours will just as good!

      All the best,
      Heidi

      • Linda says:

        Thanks Heidi, looking forward to your worksheets – I’m sure they’ll be much nicer than anything I can put together. In the meantime, I’m really grateful that your site has showed me how to help her.
        Regards
        Linda

  6. Maria D. says:

    Heidi, I have to say how much I LOVE your website. I have been using your GREAT information for some time now and from one SLP to another, your resources are FANTASTIC! I love your clear, concise explanations and parent friendly information! I love love love you and have given you a few shout outs on my fb page, Communication Station: Speech Therapy, PLLC @ https://www.facebook.com/CommunicationStationSpeechTherapyPllc. And I am planning on doing an additional blog about your website on communicationstationspeechtx.blogspot.com and the wonderful materials you have on here (in the very near future)! Hopefully it will help you reach even more parents!
    Again thanks for the wonderful parent-friendly resources!!!!

    • Heidi says:

      Thanks Maria! Thank you for sharing mommy speech therapy on your FB page as well! The more we share with each other the better we can serve each other. Thank you for contributing to our community with your blog communicationstationspeechtx.blogspot.com.

      All the best!
      Heidi

  7. Cortney says:

    Hi Heidi!
    I’m also a speech pathologist and just had to tell you how much I love your site! I wish I had seen it when I was working:)! I’m currently staying at home with my almost two-year old and with my free time have been creating a website for new speech therapists (as well as parents and teachers) that offers product ideas, best websites, resources etc. for different disorders and while researching came across your site, which offers all kinds of things that I don’t such as worksheets, specific therapy ideas and resources and the ability to answer questions! Your site is so helpful and I would love to list it on my site as a “must check out” if it’s ok with you:)

  8. Marjorie says:

    Hi Hiedi,
    I’m wondering about how the years old are defined. For example, if a sound is usually mastered by 2 years old, is that 24 months specifically or is it more general and just means sometime during the age of 2 yrs (24-35 months?)

    Thanks so much for the clarification :)

    • Heidi says:

      Hi Marjorie,

      That is very good question. If it says mastered around 2 years old it does not mean 24 months specifically. It means, like you said, that the sound is typically mastered sometime between 24-35 months.

      The reason I say “mastered around” is because the sound is typically mastered around this age in all the positions of words (initial, medial and final). I have not included the exact ages of mastery since the age varies depending on the position of the word the sound is said in. Even still the exact age of mastery is highly variable depending on which research study you are referring to. For a more specific age of acquisition I recommend you refer to my post, “When are Speech Sounds Developed” where you will find a set of norms which I outlined in the “Speech Sound Development” chart (based off the results from the Speech Sound Norms taken from the Golden Fristoe Test of Articulation-2 in 2000). I prefer this set of norms because they are based on the most recent research that I am aware of in sound acquisition.

      Hope this helps!
      Heidi

  9. Kaitlyn says:

    It would be great if this screener could be put into the articulation station app!

  10. Sue Molitor says:

    Thanks Heidi! This is great!

    -Sue

  11. TW says:

    A private school in the area wants to contract with me for speech services. Like yesterday! Do you know where I can find some sample contracts? I have no idea how to write one. Help!

  12. Yean says:

    Hi Heidi, thank you for sharing this screener, it is extremely useful. I have shared the file and your link on my website http://www.minimay.co.uk. Will definitely follow your posts in future.
    Thanks!

  13. Christy says:

    I just used this with my four-year-old son, and was surprised to see how clearly it outlined the areas where he’s having trouble. I’m so grateful to have an idea how to start working with him until we’re able to get him some more professional help. He and I are now working through the appropriate resources elsewhere on your site, and he’s loving every minute of it.

  14. Michelle says:

    I cannot explain the relief and joy it is to find your blog! With 3 wonderful boys, 2, 4, and 6 yrs. old, my 4 yr. old has my mother-in-law worried that he needs speech therapy, and since there’s always something with her, I wrote it off, but she keeps bringing it up so now I second guess his development, though at heart believe him to be fine. I’ve spent many hours recently looking online at charts, etc., and your site is phenomenal! He is developing, and I just printed your Articulation Screener and look forward to doing it with him. Honestly, I just would love to go back to relaxing and quite frankly ENJOYING his adorable mispronunciations (while of course gently modeling correct speech), since so soon he’ll most likely be past them. I am about to cry I am so grateful and pleased with your professional, grounded, and helpful information. Thank you Heidi!

  15. CC says:

    I <3 this!!!! Thank you for making it!

    I finally got an iPad and wanted to let you know that at some recent iPad seminars everyone was RAVING about your artic app. I felt like a celebrity by proxy b/c I've blogging "known" you for years! If you are looking for people to work for you/with you, let me know! I'm one of your biggest fans. :)

    • Heidi says:

      Thank you CC! And I am a big fan of yours as well! Maybe one day we could meet in person. Will you be going to the ASHA conference in Atlanta this year?

  16. claire says:

    Hi thanks for all your valuable info. I need some advice – we are in UK and my son is a few weeks off 7. He has just seen a speech therapist who concludes that he says all of his sounds correctly so does not require any therapy. However his individual speech has never been a problem but when he is in conversation and speaking in sentences he mispronounces sounds frequently and is sometimes difficult to understand my ourselves and others. His teacher agrees. He is a thumb sucker at night only. I also notice sometimes he hardly moves his mouth when speaking. Have you any advice to improve his speech ? many thanks

    • Heidi says:

      Hi Claire,

      Sometimes our kids that speak clearly at the word level but not in conversation get misdiagnosed as being okay because so many of our Articulation Assessments only test kids at the word level. I am sure that is frustrating, since it sounds like you are anxious for some help. I am wondering if there are any particular sounds your son struggles with in conversation or if it is just his limited range of motion in his jaw when he speaks that is making him mispronounce sounds. If he has specific sounds he is struggling with I would recommend you start working on those sounds in sentences and stories at home. You may use the sentences and stories I have on my worksheets page or if you have an iPad or an iPhone/ iPod Touch you may be interested in Articulation Station. In Articulation Station you can target specific sounds at the sentence and story levels in 4 different activities. When he has mastered these activities I would recommend you sit down with him everyday while he is working on his reading and have him read aloud to you. Tell him that during reading time you are going to work on saying all his sounds clearly. When he misses a sound in a word stop him and have him repeat the sentence saying the word correctly.

      If this doesn’t help and you still feel that he is struggling beyond what you can do to help him I would recommend you go back to the Speech Pathologist that tested him and express your concerns as you have to me and ask her for some guidance.

      Wishing you success!
      Heidi

  17. claire says:

    thank you heidi – i will try these recommendations out. You help is very much appreciated

  18. kar says:

    I love your website! Thank you for all the great information and worksheets. I was wondering if you have any suggestions for correcting past tense words? My son is 4 years old. He over pronounces his past tense words. For example, he says walk-ED instead of walked or talk-ED instead of talked. He makes the “ed” an extra syllable. I am trying to work with at home. It has been very frustrating for the two of us. Thank you and Go Aggies!

    • Heidi says:

      Hi Kar,

      The good news is he gets the concept of past tense verbs. Truthfully, I’m not too concerned about that extra syllable. I think with time he will eliminate it himself. If he were 9 and still doing it then I would say we have a problem. I would just recommend you repeat back to him what he just said providing him with a correct model of how to say the word. For example, if he said, “Mom, I jump-ED on the trampoline.” You could say back to him, “Yes, you jumped on the trampoline.” I believe with consistent correct models of how to say past tense verbs he will figure it out before you know it.

      Best of luck my Aggie friend!
      Heidi

  19. Jenni Deiderich says:

    Hi! A friend recommended your site when I was asking about tools to help my 3.5 year old at home. He has a phonological processing disorder. Will these articulation tools help him with that as well? He’s in speech therapy one-on-one for two 30 minute sessions a week and group therapy for two 30 minute sessions a week. So already getting 2 hours/week of therapy, but I just feel like I can be doing so much more at home. I wasn’t sure if there were different tools for articulation issues vs. phonological processing issues.

    • Heidi says:

      Hi Jenni,

      Yes, the worksheets on mommy speech therapy can be used to help kids with phonological delays. It is how you use them though that makes the difference since phonological delays are treated differently than articulation delays and these worksheets were created specifically fro articulation delays. I would talk with your speech pathologist to see what sounds and what sound positions they are targeting for the week since they will typically change the sounds they are targeting more frequently than they do for kids with articulation delays. Also, find out what kind of words they are targeting the sounds in. Typically they will only target sounds at the word level in the beginning of treatment. Your speech pathologist may even have a specific set of words that they want targeted. If that is the case you will want to practice those specific words. If they don’t have a specific set of words and they are just targeting a specific sound in a specific position than you can use the worksheets here on mommy speech therapy.

      You may also be interested in reading my post, “What are Phonological Processes” for more information on the differences between phonological and articulation delays.

      The iPad and iPhone app “Articulation Station Pro” would be an even better tool for home practice as it allows you to customize word lists and add your own custom images allowing you to target the same words the therapist is targeting at school. To learn more about Articulation Station Pro go to littlebeespeech.com.

      I hope this helps!
      Heidi

  20. Caitlin says:

    Hi,

    I am wondering whether this articulation screener would be appropriate for assessing stimulability of sounds/phonetic repertoire, in an adult with AOS?

    Thansk!

    • Heidi says:

      Hi Caitlin,

      This screener can help identify which sounds are said in error. It does not test stimulability. You can look at the sounds that are said in error, then have the client say other words with the same sound in the same position to see if they are successful. If they are not successful you may try to quickly teach the correct placement of the sound to see if they are stimulable for that sound.

      I hope this helps!
      Heidi

  21. Dee says:

    Thank you for all the great information and worksheets. I have been using them with my 5 year old boy. My child is having problems with his past tense. He over emphasizes the “ed”. He will say “push-ED.” He makes the ED its own syllable. Do you have any suggestions?

    Thanks

    • Heidi says:

      Hi Dee,

      If I were working with him I would sit him down and compliment him on how smart he is. Explain that when you are talking about an action word that has already happened we usually add an ed to the word, but instead of saying it like an “ed” we say it like a “t” or a “d.” Then have him look at pictures of people doing things and practice saying the word with the /t/ or /d/ sound at the end. For example, “He walkt.” “She waved” “He jumpt.” Go through 10 or 15 verbs a day until he gets it.

      I hope this helps.
      Heidi

  22. cini says:

    Hi Heidi,

    Your site is excellent.Iam having a 3 year old son with bilateral Cochlear implant.He likes your worksheet and our daily home therapy completely depends on that.Thank you so much.

  23. Lindsey I says:

    Thank you for posting this! I send parents of kids I know to your website all the time!

  24. Taylor says:

    Hi Heidi,

    I just had my 2 1/2 year old son evaluated and they said that he does have an articulation disorder and could use some speech therapy. My mother, especially, is really insistent that I begin professional therapy now, but I just can’t help but wonder what age is really appropriate to start professional therapy? He makes progress every day, but he especially has a hard time with appropriate word endings as well as K, L, F, V and S sounds. Any advise would be so appreciated!

    Thank you!

    • Heidi says:

      Hi Taylor,

      I used to work in early intervention with children birth to three years old. We did speech therapy with a lot of 2 1/2 year olds. Speech therapy on this population of kids is very effective. However, not being familiar with your son and his speech and language skills I cannot say whether he is an appropriate candidate for speech therapy or not. I can tell you that he should be 50 – 75% intelligible to an unfamiliar listener, meaning people who are not familiar with him should understand more than half of what he says. I can also tell you that leaving the final sounds of the end of words is a common pattern children under 3 use to simplify speech while they are learning to talk. If he continues to do this beyond the age of 3 it is more concerning. I would also tell you that if the sounds you mentioned above are the only sounds he struggles with you need not be too concerned since those sound errors would be considered developmentally appropriate for his age. I hope this helps.

      Good luck!

  25. Christi says:

    Thank you so much for this website! I am able to help my children with their speech and actually know what I am looking for to determine what other kind of help we will need.

  26. Jacy Stone says:

    My son is age 15. He has a very pronounced lisp (seemingly the “s” sound). He also has a tongue thrust (while sitting his tongue sticks out, lying rather flatly). He is a superb student, gets along well socially; however, this has started to become a hindrance. I had (apparently mistakenly) assumed he would outgrow this. He is embarrassed, and wanting help, as kids are beginning to tease. We live in the North Austin, Texas area. How would we go about finding someone to help. The place I called only take children under 5. Finding your site to be enlightening. HELP, please.

    • April says:

      Hi Jacy,
      Sorry for the delay in response. You’ll want to make sure that in your search for an SLP in your area that you are looking for a certified professional. One of the best places I’ve found to search for certified SLPs is through the American Speech-Language Hearing Association’s website (ASHA). You can search for professionals there by area, and even specify an age range. The website is http://www.asha.org/proserv/. An SLP should be able to provide tips and exercises in helping to reduce the tongue thrust, and tips for helping with the lisp. Also, because your son has a tongue thrust it might be worth consulting your dentist to see if there is anything they provide for help in reducing tongue thrust. Good luck!

  27. jenelle winchester says:

    hi..my kid is 4 years old now..she was born with a very high arch in her mouth and a wide space betwwen her bunny teeth…added tothat she sucks her thumb. I personally have problems understanding her and its frustrating…do u think dis is the best programme for her…imfrom Trinidad and Tobago…

    • April says:

      Hi Jenelle,
      This screener is to help you identify what sound or sounds your child may be having a hard time with in their speech. It’s important to look at the errors that your child makes with the words on the screener and determine if those are sounds they should be saying at their age, or if the errors are age-appropriate. If you find that your child cannot say some sounds in words that they should be able to say based on their age, I would recommend having her evaluated by a certified speech-language pathologist (SLP). If you need tips on how to work on specific sounds at home you can find them here on Mommy Speech Therapy among our posts on how to teach specific sounds. Good luck!

  28. Maeghan says:

    Hello,

    There seems to be an issue with the link to download the articulation screener. I have tried from a few different computers and keep getting an error message. Am I doing something wrong?

    • April says:

      Hi Maeghan,
      Sorry for the delay in response. I just checked the link and also the pdf download button and both downloaded ok for me. It did take a little bit of time, but it did eventually load. Did you ever resolve this problem? I will double check with Heidi just to make sure, but it seemed to work fine. Let us know! Thanks.

  29. Sarah says:

    Hi Heidi,

    I am so happy to have found your website. I have a 4 yo son who has had articulation difficulties since he began speaking. Our daycare providers (who are wonderful) first noticed it and recommended we speak to our pediatrician and call the school for evaluation at the age of 2.5.

    To summarize: We have had him evaluated by the school system 4 times over the last 2 years, both in our home and in the school. They decided that while there is an obvious articulation problem, our son is extremely intelligent and my husband and I are “well educated with good jobs” – “If I had to work with kids like him all day, my job would be a pleasure.” Our daycare providers wrote letters and encouraged us to pursue intervention. Our pediatrician has noted the delay and recommended intervention twice. With the resistance we have received, we decided to go out of state for formal evaluation and instruction on how to help him ourselves. This required a referral from the pediatrician. He has refused to write a prescription because our son has no brain injury or mental delays. Again, he agreed there is an articulation problem, “but it will probably all work out”.

    As you can imagine, we are frustrated. We have since taken our children out of daycare for other reasons. The last month they were in daycare, I was told of instances, and saw some myself, where other 4 yos were calling my son “baby” and making fun of his speech. He is fun-loving, smart, and confident. However, kids are kids, and this will likely have a negative effect on his personality. We would like to stop that. We are willing to do the work ourselves.

    I have done your articulation screener and identified many problems. By 4 years old, he should have the following mastered, but does not (in any part of the target word):
    “d”
    “g”
    “k”
    “f”
    “ng” (this is noted as 2-5 years old, but he doesn’t have any mastery of it at 4.5 years old. He completely skips that part of the word.

    Long story short (not really)…In my field (physical therapy), if someone is not squatting or running correctly, my treatment is not to have them do squats or go running as it will just strengthen the incorrect form they already use. Yet, all the advice I have been given is to make my son say the sounds over and over – ineffective and makes my son upset (because he knows). It makes sense to break down the pattern of movement and try to elicit better motor programing when the problem is truly a motor control/muscle issue.

    I noticed on your articulation log – “used a tongue depressor to teach”. THAT is exactly the kind of exercise I would love to learn more about. Can you lead me to a resource that would assist us?

    Thank you so much!

    • April says:

      Hi Sarah,
      I am so sorry to hear about the difficulties and frustration you’ve experienced with trying to get intervention and services for your son. To answer your question upfront, we have many resources available on this website that will help you elicit these sounds from your son. All of the links to our past posts will be at the right side of the blog under the category: “Improving Articulation”.

      We have a whole blog posts on helping teach /t/ and /d/: teaching /g/ and /k/: and how to teach /f/:

      Each blog post should include detailed tips for how to help your son achieve correct placement and how to get him to correctly elicit the sounds, as well as links to pdf files for practice target words. I hope that you will find this helpful.

      On a side note: I find it very strange that your local school system would refuse to provide services based on you and your husband’s jobs and your child’s seemingly good behavior. If a child meets the definition of having a disability (in this case, a speech-language impairment) for the state, then service should be provided regardless of the child’s socioeconomic status. This is a basic tenant of the federally mandated special education law, or the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). I would contact your state education agency to get more information about how a child qualifies for services in your state. It just seems like if the school system admits that there is an obvious articulation delay that affects his ability to communicate that they wouldn’t be able to deny you services based on your jobs. Good luck!